The Intel Core i9-10980HK is a high-end processor for laptops with eight cores based on the Comet Lake architecture (CML-H, 4th generation of Skylake). The processor clocks at between 2.4 and 5.3 GHz (all 8 cores up to 4.4 GHz) and can execute up to sixteen threads simultaneously thanks to Hyper-Threading. The 5.3 GHz can be only achieved below 65°C core temperature (Thermal Velocity Boost), between 65 and 85°C, 5.2 GHz are the maximum and above that 5.1 with restrictions (Turbo Boost 3.0).
The processor is still manufactured in the old 14nm (14nm++) process. Compared to the predecessor, the Core i9-9980HK, the 10980HK probably offers only increased base clock rates (and maybe multi core turbo clocks). Thanks to the free multiplicator, the CPU can also be easily overclocked (but may not have much headroom).
The Comet Lake architecture is similar to Coffee Lake and offers the same features and is produced in the same 14nm process. Other than the improved clock rates, the memory controller now also supports faster DDR4-2933 RAM. More information on Comet Lake and all the models and articles on it can be found here.
The Core i7-10750H supports no vPro, TXT or SIPP. These business features are available in the similar (and later released) Core i9-10885H (2.4 - 5.3 GHz).
The performance of the Core i9-10980HK should be higher than the old Core i9-9980HK (2.4 - 5 GHz) thanks to the increased turbo clock speeds. Thanks to the 8 cores and high Turbo speeds, even demanding applications should run very good on the CPU. However, long term performance is always depending on the laptop cooling system and system configuration. At the time of announcement, the i9-10980HK is the fastest Comet Lake-H CPU and fastest laptop CPU on the market.
The integrated Intel UHD Graphics 630 iGPU is supposed to offer a similar performance as the UHD630 in the Core i7-9980HK. As a low-end solution it will only run current games smoothly at reduced details - if at all.
Intel specifies the TDP with 45 watts and therefore the i9 is only suited for big laptops with good cooling solutions. Using cTDP-down, the CPU can also be configured to 35 Watt resulting in a reduced performance.
Beware, the CPU was not yet released at the time of writing and the information is based on leaks and early information.