Review Acer Liquid Z5 Smartphone

Florian Wimmer (translated by Liala Stieglitz), 03/31/2014

Affordable mid-range. Acer's Liquid Z5 jumps on the bandwagon of 5-inch smartphones and catches attention at first glance with a price of 170 Euros (~$234). But what does it have to offer?

In review: Acer Liquid Z5. Review sample courtesy of Acer Germany.

For the original German review, see here.

After a decrease in PC and laptop sales, Acer is increasingly adding tablets and smartphones to its range. A new offer from the Taiwanese manufacturer: The Acer Liquid Z5 that is located in the lower mid-range, but nevertheless features a large screen.

The price of just 170 Euros (~$234) catches attention, and barely a device from the current smartphone mid-range undercuts it. The Motorola Moto G would be an alternative for price-conscious buyers, just like the ZTE Blade III that, however, states 30 Euros (~$41) more in the price recommendation. The prices of LG's Optimus L5 II, Sony's Xperia M or Huawei's Ascend G525 can also keep up fairly well. None of the contenders can offer a 5-inch screen though.

The case is available with a white or gray back.
The case is available with a white or gray back.

It cannot be said that Acer's Liquid Z5 has a colorful casing. The front is always black, and the back is either white or gray. As to the back: It is made of matte plastic that does not have a very high-quality feel, but its stiffness is still acceptable. That cannot be said about the front: When higher pressure is applied to the screen, visible image errors that first disappear after a few seconds appear.

However, the build is quite decent. The silhouette of 8.8 millimeters is quite slim, and the weight of 147 grams is acceptable. Finally, the speaker grilles on the upper and lower front side provide a hint of design; nevertheless, the Liquid Z5 is rather restrained.

Connectivity

At first glance on the feature list, we notice that Acer's Liquid Z5 accepts two SIM cards at the same time. Thus, it is possible to combine a low-priced Internet rate on one SIM card with a low-priced telephone rate on the other. Or to insert both a company and a private SIM card in one device. It is quite easy to manage owing to Android. However, this feature is not really new.

We like the fact that Acer uses both SIM slots for something else: There is a full-size SIM slot and one for micro-SIMs. Consequently, an adapter, or a new card in a different format are not needed; the card is simply inserted into the corresponding slot.

Software

The operating system Android 4.2 is installed, which has been slightly expanded via Acer's Float UI. Pressing the lower left button for a longer time opens a popup menu where specific, frequently used apps can be placed over the current screen in the form of a window. This, for example, works with maps or a calculator.

The installed software is rather moderate with a flashlight app and Polaris Office 4.0. Both are also available in the Play Store.

The GPS reception quickly drops near buildings.
The GPS reception quickly drops near buildings.

Communication & GPS 

Wi-Fi standard 802.11 b/g/n, Bluetooth 4.0, quad-band GSM and GPRS, and dual-band HSPA+. Those are the key specs of the communication modules in Acer's Liquid Z5. The Wi-Fi module's reception quality is satisfactory but the signal quickly drops from three-quarters down to one-half at a distance of ten meters from the router and through three walls.

It took a long time on the open field before the GPS receiver found enough satellites to locate us. We rode over a bridge and through the woods by bike and compared the logged GPS route with the professional Garmin Edge 500 navigation system. The result: Acer's Liquid Z5 is very inaccurate; it could not detect the bridge crossing in either direction and also deviated from the actual route in the woods.

It gets increasingly more difficult for the sensor to locate the position near buildings, and the reception ultimately completely fails. Consequently, GPS reception is not possible indoors either.

Acer Liquid Z5
Acer Liquid Z5
Acer Liquid Z5
Acer Liquid Z5
Acer Liquid Z5
Acer Liquid Z5
Garmin Edge 500
Garmin Edge 500
Garmin Edge 500
Garmin Edge 500
Garmin Edge 500
Garmin Edge 500


Float Caller: calls outside of the phone app.
Float Caller: calls outside of the phone app.

Telephony and Speech Quality

Basically, the used phone app is Google's standard software, but Acer has added a feature dubbed Float Caller. Incoming calls are displayed in a floating window below the presently opened app. Thus, it is possible to quickly stop any operations and answer the call or, when unwanted, to completely ignore it.

The speech quality is quite good; however, callers sometimes sound a bit tinny. The big speakers on the front are well-suitable for hands-free conversations. They have sufficient volume, and the caller is quite clearly intelligible.

Cameras and Multimedia

Acer's camera is on par with the contenders - at least in terms of resolution. The camera can display up to 5 megapixels (2560x1920 pixels). However, when the image quality is compared, the Liquid Z5 clearly loses ground. The pictures are overexposed and have a bluish cast. For example, Nokia's 1020 renders details of dark areas considerably better without overexposing bright areas.

The 0.3 megapixel front-facing camera will really only satisfy undemanding users. The popular selfies are pixelated and exhibit color freckles even in medium bright light. Although video conferencing is possible, an acceptable image is only achieved in bright light.

Acer Liquid Z5 - fruit
Acer Liquid Z5 - fruit
Acer Liquid Z5 - scene
Acer Liquid Z5 - scene
Acer Liquid Z5 - surroundings
Acer Liquid Z5 - surroundings
Apple iPhone 5 - fruit
Apple iPhone 5 - fruit
Apple iPhone 5 - scene
Apple iPhone 5 - scene
Apple iPhone 5 - surroundings
Apple iPhone 5 - surroundings
Nokia 1020 - fruit
Nokia 1020 - fruit
Nokia 1020 - scene
Nokia 1020 - scene
Nokia 1020 - surroundings
Nokia 1020 - Umgebung
Samsung Galaxy S4 - fruit
Samsung Galaxy S4 - fruit
Samsung Galaxy S4 - scene
Samsung Galaxy S4 - scene
Samsung Galaxy S4 - surroundings
Samsung Galaxy S4 - surroundings
Sony A57 - fruit
Sony A57 - fruit
Sony A57 - scene
Sony A57 - scene
Sony A57 - surroundings
Sony A57 - surroundings


Accessories

Only a power supply and a stereo headset are included. Flip covers are optionally available, but they cover the Rapid button on the back when opened. This unfortunately limits the usability for left-handed users. At least they include a window which allows reading the time, weather and battery status without opening the cover.

Warranty

Acer included a 24-month warranty on its smartphones.

Input Devices and Controls

The aforementioned Rapid button on the back is a clever idea. It can be freely mapped, and opens the camera app in default settings. Positioning it on one of the edges might have made it more suitable as a shutter release.

Acer installs Swype as the default keyboard. A special focus is placed on smooth text inputting without lifting the finger from the screen. The letter keys are high but also fairly small in portrait mode due to the added umlaut keys. The wider keys of the default Android app subjectively feel more accurate.

The touchscreen responds reliably up into the corners, and the three touch buttons under the screen also operate well.

Keyboard portrait mode
Keyboard portrait mode
Keyboard landscape mode
Keyboard landscape mode

Display

"Not the brightest" - this verdict about a student would be quite mean, but it must be said about Acer's Liquid Z5 - or to be precise, about its screen. It has a size of 5-inches, and a category standard resolution of 854x480 pixels. Only Motorola's Moto G offers a 720p resolution among the comparison devices.

Our review sample's average brightness of 307.1 cd/m² places it at the end of our comparison devices. Only Huawei's Ascend G525 has a darker screen. The screen in Sony's Xperia M has a higher brightness of averagely 115 cd/m².

295
cd/m²
333
cd/m²
315
cd/m²
292
cd/m²
339
cd/m²
298
cd/m²
287
cd/m²
318
cd/m²
287
cd/m²
Distribution of brightness
Information
X-Rite i1Pro 2
Maximum: 339 cd/m²
Average: 307.1 cd/m²
Brightness Distribution: 85 %
Center on Battery: 339 cd/m²
Black: 0.62 cd/m²
Contrast: 547:1

Since the screen's black level of 0.62 cd/m² is fairly high in the comparison, the contrast drops to a poor 547:1. This ultimately puts the Liquid Z5 in last place among the comparison devices. This is expressed in pale colors and black colors that have a grayish cast, and consequently they do not look very vivid in image reproduction.

The screen's intense bluish cast is noticed in the more accurate measurement using the colorimeter and CalMAN software. The colors are also remote from the original rate of the reference color space. The average DeltaE shift is 10.95. The grayscale deviates extremely, and the display has a clear bluish cast that is visible to the naked eye.

CalMAN Color Management
CalMAN Color Management
CalMAN ColorChecker
CalMAN ColorChecker
CalMAN Grayscale
CalMAN Grayscale
CalMAN Saturation Sweeps
CalMAN Saturation Sweeps

Those who frequently use their smartphone outdoors will be familiar with the fact that the reflective touchscreen is usually not perfectly suitable for that purpose. The only middling brightness of Acer's Liquid Z5 does not make things better. It makes it increasingly difficult to recognize anything on the screen in bright surroundings.

The colors and brightness remain stable for a fairly long time when looking at the screen in portrait mode from the sides. However, the brightness changes very quickly from above and below, and the image distorts.

Outdoors
Outdoors
Viewing angles
Viewing angles

Performance

It becomes clear that the dual-core processor in MediaTek's MT6572, which clocks with 1.2 GHz, calculates on category average when looking at the benchmarks. The same is true for the ARM Mali-400 MP graphics chip with a clock rate of 500 MHz. However, it also becomes clear that the performance of the similarly priced Motorola Moto G is considerably higher. It sometimes has an advantage of 53% in the AnTuTu 4 system benchmark, and even as much as 223% in the 3DMark graphics rating. Sony's Xperia M also particularly has a clear lead in graphics calculation.

Routine use of the smartphone is usually smooth. However, there are occasional stutters or lapses when the relatively low-clocked dual-core processor cannot keep up.

Users who mainly use the smartphone for Internet browsing will be content with the Liquid Z5. The performance in the benchmarks is overall slightly above the comparison field.

We still have to note that many benchmarks completely refused to run or crashed on the device; even Octane that runs as a JavaScript benchmark in the browser crashed. The system does not make an especially stable impression, and it cannot be excluded that other apps will crash or even run.

AnTuTu Benchmark v4 - Total Score
Acer Liquid Z5
11317 Points ∼29%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
9434 Points ∼24% -17%
Motorola Moto G
17360 Points ∼45% +53%
Huawei Ascend G525
11419 Points ∼29% +1%
Geekbench 3
32 Bit Single-Core Score
Acer Liquid Z5
303 Points ∼9%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
254 Points ∼7% -16%
Motorola Moto G
341 Points ∼10% +13%
Sony Xperia M
349 Points ∼10% +15%
32 Bit Multi-Core Score
Acer Liquid Z5
533 Points ∼4%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
473 Points ∼4% -11%
Motorola Moto G
1169 Points ∼9% +119%
Sony Xperia M
619 Points ∼5% +16%
3DMark (2013)
1280x720 Ice Storm Standard Score
Acer Liquid Z5
1854 Points ∼1%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
1655 Points ∼1% -11%
Motorola Moto G
5438 Points ∼4% +193%
ZTE Blade III
928 Points ∼1% -50%
LG E460 Optimus L5 II
663 Points ∼0% -64%
Sony Xperia M
4207 Points ∼3% +127%
Huawei Ascend G525
3108 Points ∼2% +68%
1280x720 Ice Storm Standard Graphics
Acer Liquid Z5
1619 Points ∼0%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
1471 Points ∼0% -9%
Motorola Moto G
5237 Points ∼1% +223%
ZTE Blade III
837 Points ∼0% -48%
LG E460 Optimus L5 II
562 Points ∼0% -65%
Sony Xperia M
4336 Points ∼1% +168%
Huawei Ascend G525
3029 Points ∼0% +87%
1280x720 Ice Storm Standard Physics
Acer Liquid Z5
3765 Points ∼7%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
2946 Points ∼5% -22%
Motorola Moto G
6279 Points ∼12% +67%
ZTE Blade III
1497 Points ∼3% -60%
LG E460 Optimus L5 II
1773 Points ∼3% -53%
Sony Xperia M
3812 Points ∼7% +1%
Huawei Ascend G525
3418 Points ∼6% -9%
Vellamo Mobile Benchmark 2.0
Metal
Acer Liquid Z5
479 Points ∼27%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
382 Points ∼21% -20%
ZTE Blade III
311 Points ∼17% -35%
LG E460 Optimus L5 II
380 Points ∼21% -21%
Sony Xperia M
436 Points ∼24% -9%
Huawei Ascend G525
385 Points ∼22% -20%
HTML5
Acer Liquid Z5
1431 Points ∼46%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
1498 Points ∼48% +5%
ZTE Blade III
938 Points ∼30% -34%
LG E460 Optimus L5 II
1197 Points ∼38% -16%
Sony Xperia M
1801 Points ∼58% +26%
Huawei Ascend G525
1668 Points ∼54% +17%
Peacekeeper
Acer Liquid Z5
497 Points ∼8%
Motorola Moto G
488 Points ∼8% -2%
ZTE Blade III
200 Points ∼3% -60%
LG E460 Optimus L5 II
443 Points ∼7% -11%
Sony Xperia M
337 Points ∼5% -32%
Huawei Ascend G525
398 Points ∼6% -20%
AndroBench 3
Sequential Read 256KB
Acer Liquid Z5
86.72 MB/s ∼52%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
50 MB/s ∼30% -42%
Motorola Moto G
103.28 MB/s ∼62% +19%
ZTE Blade III
33.67 MB/s ∼20% -61%
LG E460 Optimus L5 II
35.69 MB/s ∼21% -59%
Sony Xperia M
47.43 MB/s ∼28% -45%
Huawei Ascend G525
22.05 MB/s ∼13% -75%
Sequential Write 256KB
Acer Liquid Z5
7.48 MB/s ∼13%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
6.57 MB/s ∼11% -12%
Motorola Moto G
12.54 MB/s ∼22% +68%
ZTE Blade III
5.28 MB/s ∼9% -29%
LG E460 Optimus L5 II
7.63 MB/s ∼13% +2%
Sony Xperia M
6.89 MB/s ∼12% -8%
Huawei Ascend G525
4.04 MB/s ∼7% -46%
Random Read 4KB
Acer Liquid Z5
11.35 MB/s ∼54%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
11.87 MB/s ∼57% +5%
Motorola Moto G
13.61 MB/s ∼65% +20%
ZTE Blade III
7.69 MB/s ∼37% -32%
LG E460 Optimus L5 II
10.12 MB/s ∼48% -11%
Sony Xperia M
7.92 MB/s ∼38% -30%
Huawei Ascend G525
5.94 MB/s ∼28% -48%
Random Write 4KB
Acer Liquid Z5
1.31 MB/s ∼45%
Acer Liquid Z3 Duo
0.53 MB/s ∼18% -60%
Motorola Moto G
2.52 MB/s ∼86% +92%
ZTE Blade III
0.51 MB/s ∼17% -61%
LG E460 Optimus L5 II
0.5 MB/s ∼17% -62%
Sony Xperia M
0.51 MB/s ∼17% -61%
Huawei Ascend G525
0.19 MB/s ∼7% -85%
Legend
      Acer Liquid Z5 MediaTek MT6572, ARM Mali-400 MP, 4 GB Flash
      Acer Liquid Z3 Duo MediaTek MT6572, ARM Mali-400 MP, 4 GB Flash
      Motorola Moto G Qualcomm Snapdragon 400 MSM8226, Qualcomm Adreno 305, 8 GB SSD
      ZTE Blade III Qualcomm Snapdragon S1 MSM7227A, Qualcomm Adreno 200, 4 GB Flash
      LG E460 Optimus L5 II MediaTek MT6575, PowerVR SGX531, 4 GB Flash
      Sony Xperia M Qualcomm Snapdragon S4 Plus MSM8227, Qualcomm Adreno 305, 4 GB Flash
      Huawei Ascend G525 Qualcomm Snapdragon S4 Play MSM8225Q, Qualcomm Adreno 203, 4 GB Flash

Emissions

Temperature

The section "Temperature" is pleasing for Acer's Liquid Z5. We can unhesitatingly rate it with "Very Good." At most, a slight temperature increase to 30.3 °C is felt on the upper front. The back does not heat up much more with 33 °C. That is barely noticed, and thus the Liquid Z5 can be held comfortably in all operating modes.

Max. Load
 30.8 °C28.1 °C29.1 °C 
 32.3 °C28.9 °C31 °C 
 32.4 °C28.5 °C29.4 °C 
Maximum: 32.4 °C
Average: 30.1 °C
27 °C28.4 °C32.3 °C
27.1 °C28.4 °C32.6 °C
27.3 °C28.4 °C33 °C
Maximum: 33 °C
Average: 29.4 °C
Power Supply (max.)  33.8 °C | Room Temperature 21 °C | Voltcraft IR-350

Speakers

Acer installs a total of two front-facing speakers in its Liquid Z5 - has Acer maybe copied this from HTC's One? Probably, but it is not illegitimate to adopt cool features from high-end devices and add them to the mid-range.

The speakers' sound is also decent, though they cannot compete with high-end devices. Occasional distortions are heard in maximum volume, which is quite high. Besides that, it almost completely lacks low ranges. Nevertheless, it is likely the best sound in the lower mid-range.

Energy Management

Power Consumption

The power consumption of Acer's Liquid Z5 is midfield. Motorola's Moto G manages to consume much less power in idle mode, and the same is true for both Sony's Xperia M and Huawei's Ascend G525. However, these smartphones have higher maximum power consumption than Acer's Liquid Z5. But the maximum power consumption is rather insignificant because smartphones are usually busy with easy tasks. Thus, the Liquid Z5 might very well be at a disadvantage in battery runtimes.

Power Consumption

Off / Standby 0.01 / 0.1 Watt
Idle 0.8 / 1.4 / 1.7 Watt
Load 2.4 / 2.7 Watt
 
Key: min: , med: , max:         Voltcraft VC 940

Battery Runtime

In fact, the relatively high idle consumption plus the battery with roughly the same capacity results in clear disadvantages for the battery runtime of Acer's Liquid Z5 in the comparison field. Only 5:41 hours of continuous Wi-Fi Internet browsing is possible before the battery is drained.

Thus, the Liquid Z5 is in one of the last places. Motorola's Moto G lasts almost three times as long. However, ZTE's Blade III and LG's Optimus L5 II offer similar runtimes. The runtimes are generally just still practicable, but the charger will need to be taken along on an excursion.

Battery Runtime
WiFi Surfing
5h 41min
Load (maximum brightness)
2h 41min

Verdict

Do buyers of a 170 Euros (~$234) smartphone have to be frustration-resistant? Very likely, because Acer's Liquid Z5 comes with a few major points of criticism that should be considered before purchase. The performance is decent and quite suitable for routine use. However, it also occasionally causes waiting times when booting, and it stutters in the menu. We deducted 3% from the final score because apps recurrently crash. This might be eliminated with a software update though. Nevertheless, games like Iron Man 3, which is a rather speedy 3D game, run satisfactorily in the screen's resolution.

As to the screen, the user will have to live with low brightness, distorted colors, and an intense bluish cast. In addition to that, there is the very imperfect picture quality of the camera, the inaccurate GPS, and the not very stable display.

But there are certainly things about the Z5 that have been adroitly solved, and which might support a purchase. The two differently sized SIM slots make the smartphone flexible, the Rapid button is a good supplement to the operating concept, and the front-facing stereo speakers are mainly only found in high-end devices.

Users can give Acer's Liquid Z5 a chance if they do not often use the smartphone's camera, they can ignore the screen's bluish cast and if the phone is not to be used for navigating. Other users will want to cast their eyes on Motorola's Moto G, which offers more power and a better build for the same price. Its camera and GPS are also superior, so it could cut deeply into the Acer Liquid Z5's target market. 

In review: Acer Liquid Z5. Review sample courtesy of Acer Germany.
In review: Acer Liquid Z5. Review sample courtesy of Acer Germany.
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In Review: Acer Liquid Z5. Review sample courtesy of Acer Germany.
In Review: Acer Liquid Z5. Review sample courtesy of Acer Germany.

Specifications

Acer Liquid Z5

:: Processor
MediaTek MT6572 1.2 GHz
:: Memory
512 MB
:: Graphics adapter
:: Display
5.0 inch 16:9, 854x480 pixel, capacitive, multi-touch, LCD, glossy: yes
:: Harddisk
4 GB Flash, 4 GB , 2.7 GB free
:: Connections
1 USB 2.0, Audio Connections: 3.5 mm headset jack, Card Reader: micro-SD slot, Sensors: accelerometer, proximity, hall, Acer Rapid Button, dual-SIM slot
:: Networking
802.11 b/g/n (b g n ), 4.0 Bluetooth, quad-band GSM and GPRS, dual-band HSPA+
:: Size
height x width x depth (in mm): 8.8 x 145.5 x 73.5
:: Weight
0.147 kg Power Supply: 0.046 kg
:: Battery
7.4 Wh Lithium-Polymer, 2000 mAh, non-removable
Battery runtime (according to manufacturer): 710 h
Talk time 2G (according to manufacturer): 12 h
:: Price
170 Euro
:: Operating System
Android 4.2
:: Additional features
Webcam: Rear: 5 MP, Autofocus, f2.4, Rear: 0.3 MP (VGA), Speakers: speakers, DTS sound, Keyboard: virtual keyboard, flip cover, Acer Float Caller, Float Maps, Easy Hotspot, Data Traffic Manager, Polaris Office 4.0, 24 Months Warranty

 

Acer's Liquid Z5 is available in two colors.
Acer's Liquid Z5 is available in two colors.
However, that only applies to the back.
However, that only applies to the back.
The case is relatively slim and well-built.
The case is relatively slim and well-built.
Not many offer 5-inches in this category to date.
Not many offer 5-inches in this category to date.
The camera is rather standard.
The camera is rather standard.
The back is made of rough plastic.
The back is made of rough plastic.
Pressure barely impresses the back.
Pressure barely impresses the back.
But, too high pressure should not be applied to the screen.
But, too high pressure should not be applied to the screen.
Android 4.2 has been expanded with Float UI.
Android 4.2 has been expanded with Float UI.
It allows placing a calculator over the surface, for example.
It allows placing a calculator over the surface, for example.

Similar Devices

Devices with the same GPU

» Acer Liquid Z4 Duo Smartphone Review
Mediatek MT6572, 4.0", 0.122 kg
» Review Acer Iconia B1-721 Tablet
Mediatek MT8312, 7", 0.317 kg
» Short Review Simvalley Mobile AW-414.Go SmartWatch
Mediatek MT6572, 1.5", 0.091 kg
» Review Acer Liquid Z3 Duo Smartphone
Mediatek MT6572, 3.5", 0.104 kg
» Review Asus Memo Pad ME172V Tablet
WM8950, 7.0", 0.358 kg
» Review Samsung S3 Mini GT-I8190 Smartphone
NovaThor U8500, 4", 0.113 kg

Links

  • Manufacturer's information

Compare Prices

Amazon.com

$54.78 View Cover - grey - case for Acer Liquid Z5 smartphone

Acer Liquid Z5
» 129.95 GBP (lowest price)
129.95 GBP Amazon Marketplace UK
157.35 GBP Amazon.co.uk

The displayed prices can be up to one day old.

Pro

+Slim casing
+Solid build
+Decent application performance
+Real stereo speakers
+Rapid button as control expansion
+Two SIM slots...
+...in different formats
+Float UI as Android extension
 

Cons

-Pressure-sensitive screen
-Flip cover might interfere with use
-GPS feature only limited functionality
-Camera's middling image quality
-Screen's bluish cast
-High black level
-Apps sometimes unstable
-Only satisfactory battery runtime

Shortcut

What we like

A few smart ideas, like the Rapid button and the differently sized SIM slots.

What we'd like to see

Practical components: better screen, camera, GPS module.

What surprises us

That apps run unstably, crash or don't even start.

The competition

Motorola Moto G, ZTE Blade III, LG Optimus L5 II, Sony Xperia M, Huawei Ascend G525.

Rating

Acer Liquid Z5
04/01/2014 v4
Florian Wimmer

Chassis
64%
Keyboard
56 / 75 → 75%
Pointing Device
86%
Connectivity
45 / 60 → 75%
Weight
93%
Battery
88%
Display
77%
Games Performance
50 / 75 → 67%
Application Performance
12 / 65 → 18%
Temperature
91%
Noise
100%
Audio
50%
Camera
54%
Add Points
-3%
Average
62%
74%
Smartphone *
Weighted Average

> Notebook / Laptop Reviews and News > Reviews > Review Acer Liquid Z5 Smartphone
Author: Florian Wimmer, 2014-03-31 (Update: 2014-03-31)